It is unfortunate to see that Native Americans are left behind whilst the rest of American society progresses. Suffering a poverty rate of 27%, this is the highest of any ethnicity in the United States (U.S Census Bureau, 2013). Other areas in which Native’s are poorly ranked include education, with a high-school graduation rate of only 67% (HUFFPOST, 2014), as well as health, with a life expectancy of 4 years less than that of all races combined (Indian Health Service, 2017). The few areas where natives place high are also indicators of poverty rather than prosperity. One of these areas is drug abuse, with almost a sixth of Natives regularly abusing drugs, in comparison to only a tenth of all Americans (SAMHSA, 2016).
Despite an evident need of government spending and support, Trump’s administration seems to have done nothing but invite chaos and mayhem into the lives of the indigenous, beginning with the turmoil surrounding the Dakota Access Pipeline. By order of the President’s power through an executive decision, the construction will continue and will destroy sacred burial grounds and contaminate drinking water (HUFFPOST, 2017). Additionally, numerous forms of police brutality - often associated with African-Americans and not natives - have been displayed against protesters struggling to protect their rightfully owned land. Examples of this include excessive force, unlawful arrests, and mistreatment in jail, reaching a point whereby even the United Nations has decided to interfere. It is also interesting to note that the original pipeline route was intended to traverse the north of Bismarck in North Dakota, a predominantly white area, as opposed to the sacred Indian burial ground, yet was re-routed for fear of contaminating the water supply in the north of Bismarck. However, when the same concerns arose for colored citizens, their needs were overlooked, with the reasoning being claims of overall benefit through job creation. One wonders why this approach of utilitarianism only applies when those who suffer are not of European descent.
Regrettably, the meddling and disruption has not ended there. Speculation exists that Trump’s proposed ‘wall’ may drive right through the heart of a reservation located on the US-Mexico border in Southern Arizona, splitting the land in half, and once again, breaking an almost 200 year old treaty deal by disregarding the reservation’s autonomy . Panic arose when Republican Arizona State Senator John McCain was questioned on his position concerning the reservation wall, to which his office did not respond. Arizona’s other State Senator, Jeff Flake, commented on the matter saying that in order to ensure security across the US-Mexico border, it “might mean a wall in some places or a fence in others”, indicating that he will not be fighting against any disturbance this may cause to the reservation’s community (VOA, 2017).
Despite the aforementioned statistics entailing the progress - or lack thereof - of Native Americans in conjunction with the rest of the nation, the Trump administration has also speculated that it may reduce or remove funding for several programs intended to instill success in native communities, including education programs, law enforcement & safety programs, as well as climate change and housing assistance. One can clearly deduce from this sequence of events that Trump is no supporter of affirmative action, arguing that “My administration shall treat provisions that allocate benefits on the basis of race, ethnicity, and gender in a manner consistent with the requirement to afford equal protection of the laws under the Due Process Clause of the Constitution’s Fifth Amendment.” (Capriccioso, 2017). In essence, Trump implies that programs related to race may be deemed illegal.
Even if this were to be the case, it must be stressed that these benefits have not been given out on the basis of ethnicity but are in fact built on the ‘centuries-long political relationship between tribes and the United States’ (Capriccioso, 2017), as maintained by the National American Indian Housing Council.
Historical mistreatment of Natives is not just evident within United States, but also within its northern neighbour Canada. There exists no better description of the Canadian government's aims towards the treatment of the aboriginal First Nations than, as it was infamously said, “to kill the Indian in the child”. Historically, it has been highly debated whether the term ‘genocide’ can be used to chronicle the removal and separation of 150,000 Indigenous children from their families to attend ‘residential schools’. While most of the 139 Indian Residential Schools ceased to operate by the mid-1970s, the last federally-run school closed in the late 1990s, marking the beginning of perhaps the deepest intergenerational damage thrust upon Canada’s natives.
The 19th century Canadian government believed that the best chance for success was for the aboriginal people to learn English and adopt Christian values, and thus we witnessed an abolition of native traditions. Its policy of ‘aggressive assimilation’ was to be taught at church-run, government-funded residential schools run under the Department of Indian Affairs. With agents deployed to ensure that all native children attended, 1,100 students were enrolled at the 69 schools nationwide, and in 1931, at the peak of the system, 130 schools operated in every province save Newfoundland, Prince Edward Island and New Brunswick. These academic institutions were born out of the assumption that aboriginal culture was ‘unable to adapt to a rapidly modernizing society’ and that native children could only be successful if they spoke English or French and assimilated into mainstream Canadian society. (CBCNEWS, 2013)
In answering whether or not Canada thus committed genocide against First Nations, Metis and Inuit peoples, comes the definition of genocide; defined in international law through the UNGC that prosecutors prove perpetrators had a specific intent to commit genocide (dolens specialis). This provision makes it difficult on a legal level to argue that genocide occurred over the long history of the IRS system in Canada. However, the conditions suffered by the aboriginal children gave way for the Indian Residential School Settlement Agreement being approved by all parties in May 2006. Substandard conditions including physical abuse for speaking their native tongues, as well as convictions of sexual abuse arose in gender-segregated activities. Forms of psychological abuse included being 10 months away from their families and all correspondence written in English, which their families couldn't read. According to documents obtained by the CBC, schools also carried out nutritional experiments on malnourished students in the 1940s and 50s with the federal government’s knowledge, (CBCNEWS, 2013).As outlined in the IAP, sexual and physical assaults which were committed by an adult employee of the residential school or another adult who was lawfully on the premises and any other wrongful act or acts committed by an adult employee or another adult lawfully on the premises where the abuse caused serious psychological consequences for the claimant.
The implementation of the Indian Residential Schools Settlement Agreement began on September 19, 2007. The Settlement Agreement included five different elements to address the legacy of Indian Residential Schools: a Common Experience Payment (CEP) for all eligible former students of Indian Residential Schools, an Independent Assessment Process (IAP) for claims of sexual or serious physical abuse, measures to support healing such as the Indian Residential Schools Resolution Health Support Program and an endowment to the Aboriginal Healing Foundation, commemorative activities and the establishment of a Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC). (Government of Canada, 2017)
On June 11, 2008, on behalf of the Government of Canada and all its citizens, Prime Minister Stephen Harper stood in the House of Commons to acknowledge the intergenerational damage caused by this policy to former students of Indian Residential Schools, their families and communities; to offer an Apology; and to ask for forgiveness from the Aboriginal peoples of this country for failing them so profoundly. The Apology underlined Canadians' resolve to learn from these tragic events to ensure they will never be repeated. “The burden of this experience has been on your shoulders for far too long. The burden is properly ours as a Government, and as a country. There is no place in Canada for the attitudes that inspired the Indian Residential Schools system to ever prevail again. You have been working on recovering from this experience for a long time and in a very real sense, we are now joining you on this journey. The Government of Canada sincerely apologizes and asks the forgiveness of the Aboriginal peoples of this country for failing them so profoundly.” (Government of Canada, 2010).
There is a huge chasm in public perception and belief that ranges on the one hand from those who whitewash history and deny the impact of these atrocities on Aboriginal peoples to those who admit to past wrongdoings and move forward to begin the politics of reconciliation. The neo-conservative right in Canada fears a truthful telling of the history of governmental-Aboriginal relationships. This fear is easily understood; to admit the history is to admit to both a record of racism in the past and to the possibility of continued racism against Aboriginal peoples in the present. It is time to end this denial, to acknowledge the truth about our recent past, and to accept that the mainstream of Aboriginal peoples should never be forgotten. Only then will an era of true reconciliation between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal peoples begin. (Adapted from Wayne Warry, Ending Denial: Understanding Aboriginal Issues).
Capriccioso, R. (2017, June 6). Trump Budget Serves Deep Cuts in Many Indian Areas. Retrieved September 2, 2017, from Indian Country Today: https://indiancountrymedianetwork.com/news/politics/tribal-budget-serves-deep-cuts-indian-areas/
CBCNEWS. (2013, July 30). Aboriginal nutritional experiments had Ottawa's approval. Retrieved from CBCNEWS: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/thunder-bay/aboriginal-nutritional-experiments-had-ottawa-s-approval-1.1404390
Government of Canada. (2010, September 15). Indigenous and Northern Affairs. Retrieved from Statement of apology to former students of Indian Residential Schools : http://www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/eng/1100100015644/1100100015649
Government of Canada. (2017, August 15). Statistics on the Implementation of the Indian Residential Schools Settlement Agreement. Retrieved from Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada: http://www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/eng/1315320539682/1315320692192
HUFFPOST. (2014, July 7). The Education System Is Failing Native American Students. Here’s Proof. Retrieved September 1, 2017, from Huffington Post: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/07/18/native-american-education_n_5593253.html
HUFFPOST. (2017, January 24). HUFFPOST. Retrieved August 29, 2017, from Native Americans Ready To Battle Trump Over Dakota Access Pipeline: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/native-americans-trump-dakota-access-pipeline_us_5887ca3de4b098c0bba73a30
Indian Health Service. (2017, April). Indial Health Disparities Disparities. Retrieved September 3, 2017, from Indian Health Service: https://www.ihs.gov/newsroom/includes/themes/responsive2017/display_objects/documents/factsheets/Disparities.pdf
SAMHSA. (2016, February 18). Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Retrieved September 1, 2017, from Sunrise House: https://www.samhsa.gov/specific-populations/racial-ethnic-minority
U.S Census Bureau. (2013, February). Poverty Rates for Selected Detailed Race and Hispanic Groups by State and Place: 2007-2011. Retrieved August 31, 2017, from https://www.census.gov/prod/2013pubs/acsbr11-17.pdf
VOA. (2017, May 3). Native Americans Fear Loss of Culture Over Trump's Border Wall. Retrieved August 30, 2017, from VOA: https://www.voanews.com/a/native-americans-fear-loss-of-culture-over-trump-border-wall/3836769.html
As part of our new series we will be interviewing a number of politicians, economists and people with a profound interest in national and global affairs. First up is our interview with Pam Damoff, the Liberal MP for the riding of Oakville North - Burlington in Canada. Leaving a career in the world of finance to pursue her goals in politics, Pam has been an MP since the 2015 Canadian Federal Elections, in addition to her role as vice-chair of the Standing Committee on the Status of Women.
Leaving one of the most profitable sectors of the Canadian economy (Investment Banking and Finance) to pursue a career in politics is certainly interesting. What inspired you to take up a career serving the Canadian people and did you face any obstacles in your path towards becoming an MP?
As you know, I successfully ran for council in 2010, after involvement in a number of community initiatives over the years, I was on council for five years and then the opportunity to run federally, which was something I’d thought of doing but didn’t think I’d ever have the opportunity to do, came up. Regardless of the political party, politics is about helping people and the community, it doesn’t really matter where you are in government. Hedy Fry, the longest running female Member of Parliament, told me that you can affect more change in 10 min in government than you can in 10 years outside government. I’ll be honest with you, I’ve been fortunate enough to avoid any serious obstacles in my path. I’ve faced some small challenges but working in government has been a tremendous opportunity.
In an international context, many young people looking to enter the world of politics are frozen out due to a lack of connections or influential backers in the political scene, an issue predominantly witnessed in the United States of America. Do you feel that it is easier for newcomers without influential backing to enter and rise up the political scene in Canada than it is in the United States?
It’s definitely easier in Canada than in the United States, predominantly because of the election financing laws. Canada has very different election financing laws than the United States, in Canada only individuals can donate to political parties, private companies are unable to do so. Here in Canada we have a contribution limit of $1,500 per year to political parties, so whereas parties in the US are able to raise millions of dollars for local elections, Canadian parties raise a much lower amount. It is still difficult to raise that sum of money but it's definitely not impossible for newcomers to make a real difference
Earlier this year, Justin Trudeau received a lot of criticism for essentially backtracking on his promise to initiate electoral reform in Canada. Do you believe that the current 'first past the post' system is the best system for Canada or do you prefer an alternative system?
In terms of electoral reform, I held a town hall meeting over it and even at that meeting there was no general consensus about the best way to move forward. People have very passionate opinions about it but the Prime Minister has made a decision on this topic and we’re looking to move on from it. Many people are passionate about the topic but want to focus on more important issues, while people in my riding that I’ve talked to during canvassing recognize that their voices have been heard. It is something that is still on the radar, however there are more pressing issues to focus on.
Many Canadians are uneasy about the Temporary Foreign Worker program, with the view that foreign workers are taking up jobs that Canadian citizens are able to fill. With many of these TFW's not having a clear path to obtain residency in Canada, do you feel that the government should look to reform the program, and if so how can it do so?
The Temporary Foreign Worker Program has strict guidelines about who can come into the country. These are clearly advertised and I don’t think the Temporary Foreign Workers are taking jobs from Canadians, particularly as it is ensured that Canadians fill these jobs first, and so I’m not really sure about how many Canadians are actually uneasy about it. Temporary Foreign Workers are necessary and needed and the government is always looking at how to improve programs like this.
Canada's auditor general reported in 2006 that the government-First Nations accountability relationship was "unworkable because little legitimacy is attached to it." Within the government-First Nations accountability relationship, would you say that the emphasis of the AANDC is more on controlling the use of funds than on treating First Nations leaderships as governments who receive authority to raise their own revenues?
It’s a very technical issue and a recent cabinet shuffle determined two departments to deal with the Northern and Southern affairs within Canada. It’s definitely important that we take a step forward in ensuring nation to nation development between the federal government and indigenous communities moving forward.
Given your position as vice chair of the Standing Committee of the Status of Women, do you feel as if Canada still experiences a gender pay gap in both the public and private sector? If so, what is the Liberal government doing to correct this?
Yes I believe there is still a gender pay gap within the workforce and there is data that supports this. There was a pay equity commission formed when we came into government and the government is looking to bring in legislation to correct this in 2018. However this legislation will only affect federally regulated organization, not all businesses in Canada. Women entering the workforce tend to start with lower pay and therefore continue to remain behind and our committee is definitely looking at programs to make sure this important issue is addressed
It is estimated that lost productivity caused by workers' depression and anxiety costs the Canadian economy almost $50 billion a year. Do you feel that mental health is something that should be covered in the Canadian health care system?
I definitely agree that the lack of coverage for mental health has been an issue but the government is looking to correct this, and the Minister of Health has announced that as part of a new health accord the federal government plans to provide funding of $5 billion over 10 years to provinces and territories provision of easily accessible mental health services, which is the first instance of federal mental health funding in Canada.
With housing prices in Canada skyrocketing, many young people are struggling to get on the housing ladder and it seems as if this is something that will continue in the near future. Despite the introduction of foreign buyer taxes and mortgage rule changes, do you believe that the Federal Government should look to develop initiatives for young people attempting to purchase homes?
So there have been changes introduced across the country to deal with the rising house prices that have definitely calmed the market, but there is still a large issue for young people trying to buy property. I am definitely not opposed to programs introduced by the federal government that aim to help young people in establishing themselves on the property ladder.